Life cycle impacts and environmental fate of pharmaceuticals: Examining the life cycle

Summary and further reading

We have seen in this module the need to take a holistic approach to improving sustainability within the pharmaceutical industry and examine the product as a whole, throughout its entire lifecycle and not solely focusing on the API.

Recommended reading:

W. De Soete, L. Boone, F. Willemse, E. De Meyer, B. Heirman, H. Van Langenhove and J. Dewulf, Environmental resource footprinting of drug manufacturing: Effects of scale-up and tablet dosage, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 2014, 91, 82-88.